World heritage Sites; What are they and Which are in India

World Heritage Sites are all over the world. They held very importantly to that certain place as well as for the country. Also, its the most time appearing word question in competitive exams. So, What are World heritage sites? What is there importance?  What is UNESCO? How many are World Heritage Sites in India? let’s find out.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization or (UNESCO) seeks to build the peace through international cooperation in Education, the Sciences and Culture. UNESCO’s programs contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals defined in Agenda 2030 which is adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015.

WOrld heritage sites and UNESCO

World Heritage sites are landmarks or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or another form of significance and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

For being selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area). It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet.

The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored and unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 states parties which are elected by their General Assembly.

The program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage, which was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since then, 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most widely recognized international agreements and the world’s most popular cultural program.

As of July 2017, 1,073 sites are listed in which 832 were cultural, 206 natural, and 35 mixed properties, in 167 states. The Table of World Heritage Sites by country lists Italy as the home for the largest number of sites with 53, followed by China (52), Spain (46), France (43), Germany (42), India (36), Mexico (34) and United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories (31).

List of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in India(YEAR)World Heritage sites in India

Cultural  

  1. Agra Fort (1983)
  2. Ajanta Caves (1983)
  3. Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda, Bihar (2016)
  4. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989)
  5. Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (2004)
  6. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus(2004)
  7. Churches and Convents of Goa (1986)
  8. Elephanta Caves (1987)
  9. Ellora Caves (1983)
  10. Fatehpur Sikri (1986)
  11. Great Living Chola Temples (1987,2004)
  12. Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986)
  13. Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984)
  14.  Monuments at Pattadakal (1987)
  15. Hill Forts of Rajasthan (2013)
  16. Historic City of Ahmadabad (2017)
  17. Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi (1993)
  18. Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986)
  19. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (2002)
  20. Mountain Railways of India (1999,2005,2008)
  21. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)
  22. Rani-ki-Vav at Patan, Gujarat (2014)
  23. Red Fort Complex (2007)
  24. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003)
  25. Sun Temple, Konârak (1984)
  26. Taj Mahal (1983)
  27. The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement (2016)
  28. The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010)

Natural

  1. Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (2014)
  2. Kaziranga National Park (1985)
  3. Keoladeo National Park (1985)
  4. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)
  5. Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988,2005)
  6. Sundarbans National Park (1987)
  7. Western Ghats (2012)

Mixed 
Khangchendzonga National Park (2016)

Along with these, there are also 42 more tentative sites proposed by India for giving the world heritage sites nomination. These are 42 in number.